MIT Engineers harness ancient materials to develop affordable supercapacitor for renewable energy storage

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Researchers at MIT have developed a novel energy storage system using two ancient materials: cement and carbon black.

The technology could enable the use of renewable energy sources by stabilizing energy networks despite fluctuations in supply.

The resulting supercapacitor could serve as an alternative to batteries for storing electrical energy.

Basics of Supercapacitor

The core principle of supercapacitors remains preserved within this innovative design – the capacity to rapidly accumulate and release electrical energy. Yet, the fusion of cement and carbon black imparts unique characteristics that distinguish this design from its counterparts. This synergy generates a conductive network within the cement structure, elevating the energy storage potential to unprecedented levels.

Innovative supercapacitor technology

Imagine a special kind of material made from cement, the stuff used in buildings, and carbon black, which is like super-fine charcoal. This material is designed in a way that creates lots of tiny spaces inside it, kind of like a maze.

Illustration of Intricate network of conductive pathways within the supercapacitor-infused concrete, emphasizing its unique structure for energy storage.

So, here’s how it works: We mix this carbon black with cement powder and water, just like making a recipe. When these things come together, something cool happens. It’s like magic – tiny wire-like structures start forming within the cement as it hardens.

Think of it as creating a network of invisible highways inside the material. These highways are really good at carrying electrical energy. The more of these highways we have, the more energy the material can store.

The result is a special material that can store and release electrical energy. It’s like a supercapacitor, which is a bit like a battery but works in a different way. This material becomes a kind of energy sponge, soaking up electricity and holding onto it until we need it.

Practical applications

Practically speaking, this supercapacitor innovation holds exciting possibilities for real-world applications. Imagine integrating this technology into different structures, like the very foundations of buildings or even roadways. These structures could essentially become energy reservoirs, capable of storing the power generated by renewable sources such as sunlight and wind.

Picture this: a house’s concrete foundation not only provides stability but also acts as a silent guardian of energy. It could store an entire day’s worth of energy from sources like solar panels, ready to be used whenever it’s needed. The remarkable part is that this wouldn’t burden construction costs or compromise the strength of the building’s foundation.

Furthermore, consider the potential for roadways to become dynamic energy channels. Imagine roads embedded with this supercapacitor technology, capturing energy from passing vehicles or even sunlight. As electric cars drive along, they could be charged wirelessly, seamlessly tapping into the stored energy within the road itself.

Importance for renewable energy transition

The transition to renewable energy, driven by sources like wind, solar, and tidal power, presents a unique challenge: their energy production varies over time. To address this, the newly developed supercapacitors emerge as vital tools. With their ability to efficiently store and release energy, these supercapacitors ensure a stable supply of power, even during periods of fluctuating energy production. This pivotal role in balancing energy supply and demand marks a significant stride toward a sustainable and reliable renewable energy ecosystem.

Crucially, these supercapacitors offer a game-changing advantage over traditional lithium-based batteries. Their cost-effective nature provides an accessible solution to the energy storage dilemma, bypassing the limitations associated with lithium availability. By seamlessly integrating these supercapacitors into the renewable energy framework, we pave the way for a future powered by clean, efficient, and resilient energy sources, effectively propelling the renewable energy transition forward.

Energy storage capacity

The energy storage capacity achieved through this innovation is quite remarkable. Imagine a block of nanocarbon-black-doped concrete, designed in a specific way – it has the potential to store approximately 10 kilowatt-hours of energy. To put this into perspective, that’s roughly the amount of electricity an average household uses in a day. This means such a block could effectively store a day’s worth of energy, be it from solar panels or other sources, ready to be accessed whenever needed.

What’s equally impressive is how these supercapacitors handle energy flow. Unlike traditional batteries that can take a while to charge and discharge, supercapacitors excel in this aspect. They’re like super-speedy energy couriers, capable of rapidly absorbing and releasing energy. This agility not only makes them versatile in various applications but also enhances their reliability in delivering energy when required.

Testing and future plans

The researchers conducted tests to fine-tune the supercapacitor’s design, finding the best mix of cement, carbon black, and water. They then created small supercapacitors, proving their power by lighting up a 3-volt LED.

Looking ahead, the team aims to scale up the technology by building larger versions. This will demonstrate the capability to store substantial energy amounts, marking a step toward practical implementation.

Tradeoff between storage and strength

In the context of optimizing the performance of the developed supercapacitor technology, a critical consideration revolves around striking an equilibrium between energy storage capacity and structural integrity. This dynamic interplay, commonly referred to as the “tradeoff,” underscores the necessity to fine-tune the composition of the supercapacitor material for specific applications.

Preliminary investigations indicate that a compositional ratio encompassing approximately 10 percent carbon black within the mixture emerges as a particularly promising configuration. This proportion appears to serve as the optimal balance, especially in scenarios where the structural robustness of the material is of paramount importance. By maintaining this delicate equilibrium, it becomes feasible to harness a commendable degree of energy storage potential without incurring undesirable compromises in the material’s mechanical strength.

Additional applications

  1. Vehicle-Charging Roadways: The technology can be used to create roads that can charge electric vehicles as they drive, making it convenient and efficient for cars to get power on the go.
  2. Isolated Homes or Buildings: It can provide a solution for places that are far from regular power sources. These supercapacitors could store energy from renewable sources like solar panels to keep these homes and buildings powered.
  3. Heating Systems: The same special concrete mixture can also be used to create heating systems. By sending electricity through the concrete, it can generate heat and warm up spaces.
  4. Customizable Energy Storage: This technology offers the flexibility to adapt to different needs, making it versatile for various applications where energy storage is required.
  5. Sustainable Infrastructure: Incorporating supercapacitors into structures like roads and buildings supports the development of more sustainable and efficient infrastructure.
  6. Reduced Reliance on Batteries: The technology provides an alternative to traditional batteries for energy storage, offering potential cost savings and reduced environmental impact.
  7. Enhanced Energy Resilience: By enabling energy storage in different forms, it contributes to a more resilient and reliable energy system, especially in areas prone to power shortages or outages.
  8. Promotion of Renewable Energy: These applications promote the use of renewable energy sources by providing efficient ways to store and distribute the energy they generate.


In conclusion, the emergence of this developed technology marks a pivotal milestone in redefining the conventional role of concrete within the dynamic landscape of the energy transition. Beyond its conventional use as a foundational material, concrete now evolves into a multifaceted enabler of versatile energy storage solutions. This innovation has illuminated a transformative path toward sustainable energy utilization, seamlessly integrating ancient materials with cutting-edge scientific insights.

The applications span a spectrum of possibilities, ranging from illuminating the potential of roads as energy corridors to empowering remote abodes with self-sufficient energy sources. Moreover, the ingenious blend of cement and carbon black not only showcases the adaptability of materials but also resonates with the ethos of sustainability. By circumventing the limitations of conventional lithium-based batteries, this technology paves the way for a greener future, unshackling energy storage from its traditional confines.

Research team and support

The study was conducted by MIT professors Franz-Josef Ulm, Admir Masic, and Yang-Shao Horn, along with other researchers at MIT and the Wyss Institute.

The research was supported by the MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub, sponsored by the Concrete Advancement Foundation.

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